Nugaḥ नुगः (Sundhara)
Nugaḥ/Sundhara is an ancient city quarter of Patan and it was historically referred to as Nogvala, Nogala, Nugalaka, Nugala and so forth. A Licchavi inscription by Mānadeva from 610 CE (MS 34) mentions this place. ‘Nugaḥ’ in Newari means ‘heart’. The route of Buṅgdyaḥ/Karuṇāmaya procession is divided into several cakras in accordance with the Kuṇḍalinī-Yoga. The Nugaḥ Ṭola, one of the main halts of the procession is considered as Hṛdaya (heart) cakra. The predominating deity (adhiṣṭhātā) of the ‘hṛdayacakra’ is Maheśvara, that is why four Umāmaheśvara temples were built in the four cardinal directions at Nugaḥ, where the procession halts. Since Lũ Hiti (lit. golden spout) is located at Nugaḥ, this place is referred to as Sundhara at present days. The Tvyāy Bāhāḥ (Mitravarṇa Vihāra) which houses the fictive friend (mīta) of Buṅgadyaḥ is also located at the Nugaḥ Ṭola.
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